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Pingali

Pingali has been supported by the following NSF grants.

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  • NSF Presidential Young Investigator award: 1989-94, $312,500.
    Project title: Parallel Computation: Languages, Architectures and Compilers.

  • NSF grant number CCR-9008526: 1990-1992, $81,262.
    Project Title: Parallel Languages, Parallelizing Compilers.

This funding supported research in two areas: (i) program analysis and optimization, and (ii) automatic restructuring of programs.

In the area of program analysis and optimization, Pingali developed fast algorithms for control dependence analysis, and investigated the use of `sparse' techniques for speeding up program analysis. These algorithms and their impact are described below.

  1. Control dependence is usually represented using the control dependence graph (CDG), a data structure designed by Ferrante, Ottenstein and Warren [38]. The CDG provides access to control dependence predecessors and successors in time proportional to the size of these sets, but in the worst case, its size is quadratic in the size of the program. Cytron, Ferrante and Sarkar [31], and Sreedhar and Gao [105], among others, have tried to reduce this size while preserving proportional time access but these efforts have not been fruitful, and this problem was the major open problem in the area of control dependence. Pingali and his co-workers have given an optimal solution to this problem by defining a data structure called the augmented postdominator tree (), which can be built in space and time proportional to the size of the program, and which provides proportional time access to control dependence successors and predecessors [89]. It is being used at IBM (Kemal Ebcioglu's group) for speculative instruction scheduling, and at HP (Bob Rau's group) for dataflow analysis of code with speculative operations. In addition, the data structure can be used to construct the SSA form of a program in linear time, which improves the quadratic time complexity of the most commonly used algorithm, due to Cytron, Ferrante, Rosen, Wegman and Zadeck [30].

  2. Pingali and his students have designed an optimal solution to the problem of determining control dependence equivalence classes [59]. This algorithm is being used at Microsoft by Daniel Weise's group; for some programs, it speeds up SESE region determination by a factor of 40 over previous algorithms (personal communication from Roger Crew). Flavors Technology Inc. is using this algorithm for SESE region determination (personal communication from Doug Currie).

  3. Pingali's research group has defined and implemented the dependence flow graph (DFG) which is an executable representation of program dependences, and which can be used to perform a variety of forward and backward dataflow analysis, such as constant propagation, elimination of partial redundancies, and strength reduction, using sparse techniques [59,58]. The DFG is being used as an internal representation of digital circuits by Miriam Leeser's logic synthesis and verification group in the EE department at Cornell University; this group uses the DFG tool-kit implemented by Pingali's research group [19,64].

In the area of automatic restructuring techniques for programs, Pingali and his group have performed the following work.

  1. There is a lot of interest in the community in using matrix methods to model and synthesize sequences of loop transformations (permutation, skewing, reversal), a technique pioneered by Banerjee, and by Wolf and Lam [6,125,124]. This work has focused on using unimodular matrices. Pingali and his students have generalized these techniques by showing that general non-singular matrices can be used to model these loop transformations, and by showing that efficient code can be generated through the use of the Hermite normal form decomposition. A paper describing these results won the best paper prize at ASPLOS 1992 [65]; this paper was also selected for publication in a special issue of ACM Transactions on Computer Systems [66]. Pingali and his students have used these techniques to restructure programs to expose parallelism for coarse-grain architectures, and to enhance locality of reference in programs running on machines with caches. These ideas are being incorporated into a production FORTRAN compiler by Peter Morris' group at HP, Chelmsford, MA.

  2. Pingali and his students have developed a fast and general algorithm for automatic data alignment [9]. The model of alignment used by this algorithm unifies so-called axis, stride and offset alignments (defined by Chatterjee, Gilbert and Schreiber) [20,21], and is more general because it includes skew alignments (defined by Anderson and Lam) [5].




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